Low-temperature radiators

In an indirect charge air cooling system, rather than being released directly to the ambient air, the heat from the charge air cooler is discharged via a separate, low-temperature coolant circuit (LT cooling circuit) and a low-temperature radiator (LT radiator). The LT radiator of the indirect charge air cooling system is installed in the engine cooling module and can be designed more compactly than the direct charge air cooler without sacrificing performance. This is because the air-to-coolant heat transfer results in a higher performance density. The LT radiator can also be optionally used to perform other cooling functions. The relatively cold coolant of the LT cooling circuit can, for example, be used to ensure optimum thermal management of the temperature-sensitive lithium-ion battery, its power electronics, or the condenser of the refrigerant circuit.